NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) 20010004317: MRI Measurements and Granular Dynamics Simulation of Segregation of Granular Mixture
Publication date 1999-03-01
Topics NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MICROGRAVITY, ROTATING CYLINDERS, PARTICLE INTERACTIONS, PARTICLE MOTION, GRANULAR MATERIALS, SIMULATION, GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS, MAGNETIC RESONANCE, IMAGING TECHNIQUES, VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION, CONCENTRATION (COMPOSITION), Nakagawa, M., Moss, Jamie L., Altobelli, Stephen A.,
A counter intuitive axial segregation phenomenon in a rotating horizontal cylinder has recently captured attention of many researchers in different disciplines. There is a growing consensus that the interplay between the particle dynamics and the evolution of the internal structure during the segregation process must be carefully investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to non-invasively obtain much needed dynamic/static information such as velocity and concentration profiles, and it has proven to be capable of depicting the evolution of segregation processes. Segregation in a rotating cylinder involves two processes: the first is to transport small particles in the radial direction to form a radial core, and the second is to transform the radial core into axially segregated bands. Percolation and/or "stopping" have been proposed as mechanisms for the radial segregation. As to mechanisms for axial band formation, much less is known. The difference in the dynamic angle of repose has been proposed to segregate different components in the axial direction. Recently, Hill and Kakalios have reported that particles mix or demix depending upon the competition between diffusion and preferential drift whose order can be determined by the dynamic angle of repose through the adjustment of the rotation rate. We claim that the dynamic angle of repose could be one of the causes, however, it fails to offer reasonable explanations for certain aspects of the axial migration. For example, we always observe that the radial segregation precedes the axial segregation and small particles migrate in the radial direction to form an axially extended radial core. It then transforms into axially segregated bands. By definition, the effects of the dynamic angle of repose are restricted near the free surface where the flowing layer is present. However, during the process of transforming from the radially segregated core to axially segregated bands, small particles located in the deep core region, which is untouched by the flowing layer, also completely disappear. Usually, the dynamics angle of repose are uniquely defined for individual species to characterize particle properties, and the dynamic angle of repose thus defined provides little information for the dynamic angle of repose of the mixture since the concentration ratio and the internal packing structure do not remain the same during the segregation processes. Under microgravity environment, the dynamics angle of repose argument does not hold since there is simply no flowing layer to influence/determine the preferred directions of segregation. We have thus designed an experiment so that the effects of the dynamic angle of repose can be minimized by filling the cylinder almost completely full. Small particles still formed a radial core and also migrated to form axial bands. As ground based experiments we have designed and conducted both 2D and 3D segregation experiments. The 2D experiments are performed using a thin cylinder (the gap between two end caps is about 5 mm) filled with different combinations of particles. The 3D experiments are conducted with a long cylinder of its length and diameter of 27cm and 7cm, respectively. Results of 2D experiments indicate that different mechanisms govern particle motion in regions near and far from the axis of rotation. Results of 3D experiments indicate that a series of collapses of microstructures of particle packing (micro-collapses) may be responsible for the creation of voids for small particles to migrate through in the axial direction. We have successfully eliminated the dynamic angle of repose as a cause for segregation, however, by almost completely filling the cylinder with the particles, we have lost an opportunity to investigate a possibility of particle "mobility" being a cause for segregation which requires a flowing surface but not the difference in the angle of repose. This is currently being investigated.
Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0
Uploaded by chris85 on